surface mining economic only when the coal seam is relatively

  • Economic Surface Mining of Multiple Seams

    MULTIPLE·SEAM MINING The economic decision-making process in multiple-seam mining (or any other mining) is usually complicated and involves many variables. For surface coal mining some of the variables are as follows: Physical variables (i) Ratio of overburden to ore.

  • Surface Mining Encyclopedia

    Currently, auger mining only accounts for 4% of surface-mined coal production in the United States. Open-pit mining is used primarily in western states, where coal seams are at least 100 ft (30 m) thick. The thin overburden is removed and taken away from the site by truck, leaving the exposed coal seam.

  • Surface Mining and Environmental Quality: An Economic

    Coal mining contributes signficantly to the gross national product and is a major employer in the United States.7 More-over, its importance is likely to increase in the future as coal is substituted for relatively scarce sources of energy. While the coal mining industry is expected to expand more rapidly in the

  • Surface mining Wikipedia

    "Strip mining" is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (the overburden); this activity is also referred to as "overburden removal".It is most commonly used to mine coal and lignite (brown coal).Strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is relatively near the surface.

  • The Economic Problem of Coal Surface Mining

    THE ECONOMIC PROBLEM OF COAL SURFACE MINING By Robert L. Spore'*' At the present time, committees in both houses of Congress are considering proposed legislation for the control of surface mining, particularly surface mining for coal. The degree of concern over this problem is suggested not only by the number of published

  • Coal Mining and the Highwall Method OilPrice

    When the last economic cut has been made with a surface mining operation, the coal seam is still exposed, lying under the rock and overburden in what is known as the Highwall of the mine.

  • Surface mining strip, open pit, mountaintop removal

    Surface mining is a form of mining in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. It is the other way of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left behind, and the required mineral deposits are removed through shafts or tunnels.. Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface

  • (PDF) Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining

    Strip mining is ideally applied where the surface of the ground and the ore body itself ar e relatively horizontal and not too deep under the surfa ce, and a wide area is av ailable to be mined in


    Auger mining is a relatively low cost method of coal mining and is practical in areas where the overburden (material covering the coal seam ) is too thick to be removed economically or wh ere the

  • Mining Terms Flashcards Quizlet

    is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (the overburden). It is most commonly used to mine coal and lignite (brown coal). Strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is relatively near the surface.

  • CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology Princeton University

    seam, the thickness and number of recov-erable seams, and the physical and chemical characteristics of the coal. The three surface mining techniques most widely used in the West are area strip, open pit, and terrace pit. Area Strip Area strip is the principal surface mining technique used in

  • (PDF) Surface Mine Design ResearchGate

    Auger mining is a surface mining techniq ue used to recover additional coal from a seam located behind a highwall produced either by stripping or open-pit mining.

  • Surface Mining Flashcards Quizlet

    -relatively thin overburden (max 0-50m); for higher overburden, stripping ration and cost of stripping become too high-regular and constant surface topography and coal layers; not more than 20 degrees variation from horizontal on the coal seam

  • Strip Mining and the 1971 West Virginia Surface Mining and

    I Since the West Virginia Code uses the term "surface mining," [see W. VA. CODE ch. 20, art. 6, § 2(k) and (1) (Michie Supp. 1972)] it might be said "surface mining" is the only proper term and "strip mining" is a derogatory one used by opponents of this method of coal mining. "Strip min-

  • (PDF) Surface Coal Mining Methods in Australia

    Overall mining sequence of a typical surface coal mine in Australia (after Westcott et al., 2009). floor of the lowest seam to th e down dip economic It is widely believed that the lateral

  • Mining 101 West Virginia Coal Association

    Aug 30, 2012· Contour mining is practiced in areas where it is uneconomical to remove all the overburden from a coal seam or series of coal seams. In contour mining, surface mining machinery follows the contours of a coal seam or seams around a ridge excavating the overburden and recovering the coal seam or seams as a “contour bench” around the mountain

  • Availability of Coal Resources for Mining in Illinois

    200 feet deep, the thin interburden results in a favorable stripping ratio for surface mining the Dekoven and Davis together. Because of its relative thinness, the Herrin Coal is not available for underground mining and is available for surface mining only in limited areas.

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